Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin)

Function of riboflavin: Function: central component in a number of enzyme systems, especially in the lungs.

Dietary sources: milk and eggs, meats, fish, green vegetables, yeast, and enriched foods such as fortified cereals and breads. Grains have been fortified with B vitamins since the 1950’s. Because riboflavin is light sensitive, milk is usually commercially sold in an opaque container.

Deficiency States: Riboflavin deficiency is extremely rare in the United States. In addition to inadequate intake, causes of riboflavin deficiency can include endocrine abnormalities (such as thyroid hormone insufficiency) and some diseases.

· Inflamed lips cracks and sores at corners of the mouth

· Inflammation of the inside of the mouth

· Eye conditions such as dimness of vision without detectable lesions of eye

· Sebaceous dermatosis

Potential riboflavin deficiency states:

· Patients with anorexia nervosa

· Very rarely, inborn errors in metabolism of riboflavin dependent enzymes

· celiac disease due to poor absorption

· Lactose intolerant patients who avoid dairy products.

· “jaundiced babies” can have lower riboflavin levels due to “bilirubin lights”

Migraine Prevention: Many neurologists will try first line for migraine prophylaxis. A few small studies found evidence of a beneficial effect of riboflavin supplements on migraine headaches in adults and children. In a randomized trial in 55 adults with migraine, 400 mg/day riboflavin reduced the frequency of migraine attacks by two per month compared to placebo. Frequently riboflavin is supplemented with magnesium for headache prevention.

Riboflavin is available over the counter in 100mg tablets.

Drug interactions/Adverse effects: minimal. Not toxic due to limited GI absorption. This is the vitamin that turns your urine a bright yellow a couple hours after ingestion.